This document reports the analysis of demand for fish in France and Finland, with a special focus on PrimeFish species. Those two countries have relatively high levels of fish consumption by European standards, and have experienced significant growth in fish consumption over the last 40 years, although the level of consumption appears to have plateaued since the start of the century. The overview of consumption trends and structures in the two countries sheds light on important changes and differences. For instance, in the fresh fish market, salmon remains the main species in terms of consumption volumes in both countries, but its relative importance is much more pronounced in Finland, where demand for herring has collapsed over the last two decades. In France, negative press and rising prices have hindered growth in salmon consumption in recent years.
A detailed econometric analysis of demand for different types of fish products, defined in terms of both species and processing method, then uses data from large consumer panels in order to identify the economic and socio-demographic drivers of household-level fish consumption. By estimating the degree of substitution among potentially competing products, we identify empirically the main fish products competing with PrimeFish species for consumers’ euros in different fish sub-markets (fresh, smoked, canned, and frozen). The results demonstrate that, while the main competition among species often occurs within a market segment (e.g., between trout and salmon among smoked products in France), substitutions also take place much more broadly - for instance, canned tuna is an important substitute for all PrimeFish species in the French fresh fish market.